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Computational Study of Scattering From Healthy and Diseased Red Blood Cells


Comparative study of scattering from healthy red blood cells (RBCs) and diseased RBCs with deformed shapes. Scattering problems involving three-dimensional RBCs are formulated accurately with the electric and magnetic current combined-field integral equation and solved efficiently by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm. We compare scattering cross section values obtained for different RBC shapes and different orientations. This way, we determine strict guidelines to distinguish deformed RBCs from healthy RBCs and to diagnose various diseases using scattering cross section values. The results may be useful for designing new and improved flow cytometry procedures.

  • Scattering from Red Blood Cells (RBCs)


  • Healthy and deformed RBCs. (a) A healthy (ordinary) RBC with a biconcave shape. (b) A spherocyte having exactly the same volume as the ordinary RBC. (c) A microcyte, which is smaller than an ordinary RBC, with a biconcave shape. (d) A macrocyte, which is larger than an ordinary RBC, with a biconcave shape. (e) A sickle cell having exactly the same volume as an ordinary RBC.


    Ordinary and deformed RBCs.



    Default orientation (Ɵo = 0o, φo = 0o) of an ordinary RBC.





     
    Solutions of scattering problems involving an ordinary RBC (ORD) and four different types of deformed RBCs, i.e., a spherocyte (SPH), a macrocyte (MAC), a microcyte (MIC), and a sickle cell (SIC). (a) SCS in the forward-scattering direction, (b) SCS in the back-scattering direction, and (c) average SCS in the side-scattering direction are plotted in dBµm2 for different orientations of RBCs.


    A decision chart to diagnose various diseases using SCS data.



    Bistatic SCS (in dBμ2) of different RBCs on the z-x plane. RBCs are in default orientation ( the axis of the rotational symmetry coincides with the z axis) and they are illuminated by a plane wave propagating in the -z direction with the electric field polarized in the x direction. SCS values in back-scattering (0º) and forward-scattering (180º) directions are indicated by horizontal dashed lines.


    Bistatic SCS (in dBμ2) of different RBCs on the z-x plane. RBCs are rotated by 30º angles around the x axis and the z axis, respectively, and they are illuminated by a plane wave propagating in the -z direction with the electric field polarized in the x direction. SCS values in back-scattering (0º) and forward-scattering (180º) directions are indicated by horizontal dashed lines. Default orientations of the RBCs without rotation are also depicted.


    Diagnosis of various diseases using SCS data.



    For more information:
    • Please see the full article to appear in the Journal of Biomedical Optics in 2011.

    • Please see the full article presented in the European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP 2010) in April 2010.

    How to cite these papers:
    • Ö. Ergül, A. Arslan Ergül, and L. Gürel, "Comparative study of scattering from healthy and diseased red blood cells using surface integral equations and the multilevel fast multipole algorithm," Journal of Biomedical Optics, accepted for publication, May 2010.
    • Ö. Ergül, A. Arslan Ergül, and L. Gürel, "Rigorous solutions of scattering problems involving red blood cells," European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP 2010), Barcelona, Spain, April 2010.
     
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